ตอนที่ 31 : Dewey Sequence Problem-Solving
Dewey Sequence Problem-Solving
One of the most effective methods of problem solving is the Dewey Sequence. Developed by educator John Dewey, this reflective thinking process which is a structured organized series of questions is best described by the questions listed below. Every member of the group must come prepared to answer each of the questions in steps one through four as it pertains to your topic.
Step One: Define the Problem
1. What is the specific problem that the group is concerned about? (In the case of your group this will be your policy question).
2. What terms, concepts, or ideas need to be defined?
Step Two: Analyze the Problem
1. What is the history of the problem?
2. What are the causes of the problem?
3. What are the symptoms of the problem?
4. What methods, (approaches, laws, policies)
currently exist for dealing with the problem?
5. What are the limitations of these methods?
Step Three: Determine Criteria for optimal Solution
1. What are the guidelines for a workable solution? (Sample criteria may include cost, ability to be implemented, enforced, i.e., band uniforms-comfortable, eye catching, weather resistant).
Step Four: Propose Solutions
After the group has analyzed the problem and suggested criteria for a solution, it should begin to suggest possible solutions in tentative, hypothetical terms. Many suggest a variety of possible solutions without evaluating them. (Brainstorming).
Step Five: Evaluate Proposed Solution
After the group has compiled a list of possible solutions, it should be ready to select the best possible solution in light of the criteria that the group developed in step three.
1. Are there any disadvantages to the solution? Do the disadvantages outweigh the advantages?
2. Does the solution conform to the criteria formulated by the group? (The group may decide to modify the criteria).
Step Six: Select a Solution
1. Weigh merits and deficiencies.
2. What would be the long-term and short-term effects of this solution if it were adopted?
Step Seven: Suggest Strategies to Implement the Solution
Group members should be confident that the solution will indeed solve the problem. After the group selects the solution they must determine how to put the solution into effect.
1. How can the group get public support and approval for its proposed solution?
2. What specific steps are necessary to implement the solution?
3. How can the group evaluate the success of its problem- solving efforts?